The Most Fabricated Parts Of The Human Body

(Last Updated On: November 6, 2019)

There are human body parts that have been fabricated in one way or the other many more times than other parts of the body have been. They have been fabricated with 3D prints, supposedly they have been fabricated in genetic labs, and people will have their body parts changed through surgery. People have had tried to have their whole sex orientation changed through hormonal injections.

Sometimes human body parts need to be fabricated in a sense through organ transplants. There have been heart, eye, kidney, liver, and lung transplants performed on people to save their lives. Perhaps the above-mentioned organs or body parts are the most common organs to be transplanted. But the transplants are done to save people’s lives.

Then there is the realm of replacing human body parts with mechanical parts made of plastic or metal. The body parts that are commonly amputated are the legs, fingers, feet and legs. But they are amputated for medical reasons such as cancer, blood poisoning or the body parts may be crushed in a car accident or a natural accident.

Unfortunately, soldiers can lose limbs by stepping on landmines or having explosives detonated near them. If this does happen then they can have fabricated parts put in place of where the real limbs were.

The Human Liver

The human liver is the only organ in the human body that can naturally regenerate itself. If a liver is split in half and one side removed. The side left in the body will regenerate itself and the liver will regrow to almost normal size. The other part can be transplanted into another human being; the liver will fully grow to the normal size in that person. If a part is put into a child the liver will accommodate that child and grow to adult-size as the person becomes an adult.

The Skin

Skin cells are commonly known to grow on the human body throughout the lifetime of the person. A person’s entire skin is replaced every two to four weeks and the process of regeneration slows down as a person ages. Typically, a person loses 18 0unces of skin cells a year. Obviously, you cannot see the skin cells fall off and regenerate by they are regenerating all the time.

Human Parts Fabricated in the Lab

Basic fallopian tubes have been grown in a lab in Berlin scientists report. They successfully grew the innermost cellular layer of the human fallopian tubes and these are the structures that connect the ovaries and the uterus. The scientists say that these basic growth structures share the same shapes and features as full-grown fallopian tubes. This body part has been grown but it could never be transplanted into a woman’s body. It is just the innermost layer and not the whole organ.

Scientists in Ohio claimed they have engineered a small human brain from adult skin cells. The brain had an identifiable part in it and the structure was observable. The organ was the same size as the brain of a 5-week old fetus. The identifiable part was the optic stalk. This is the biggest brain that scientists have developed in the lad and it contained 99% of the genes in a fetus brain. Many ethical questions have been raised and many more will be raised as a result of this brain being fabricated in the lab.

One scientist quoted that they had struggled for a long time to develop this brain structure. The researcher also stated that it contains many of the diversified cell types the fetal brain will express. This model will help scientists to study complex brain diseases that cause humans great pain and suffering. But is the developed brain structure to elementary and small for scientists to derive any constructive information about complex human brain diseases?

It was reported that the brain structure had the DNA to develop the spinal cord, all major regions of the brain, multiple cell types, signaling circuitry and even a retina but the only thing the brain structure was missing was the vascular system. The researcher said this will help to speed studies on nervous system disorders and possibly find the core cause of autism.

Remember this brain structure is in the very preliminary stages of research and nothing significant can come out of the study of the brain structure just yet. The scientist worked with a very low budget in comparison to other researchers working on similar projects. He managed to build a brain after 4 years but he was aided by stem-cell engineering.

Another group of scientists took some stem cells and developed them into heart tissue and connected muscles or a mini heart. They claim the heart actually did beat like a normal-sized heart. The red tissue in the heart was the actual beating heart and the green colored tissue in the image was the connected issue. The researchers noted that this model may help health professionals to prescreen drugs that could cause heart defects in fetuses. This would help the doctors to determine which drugs may be dangerous to give to women while they are pregnant.

Again, these are preliminary suggestions that could develop as the research of the mini heart continues. Remember, that this is a very simple heart organ that was grown from stem cells. They prompted stem cells to differentiate and develop into micro cardiac tissue including micro heart chambers.

The researchers actually put the theory to the test. To test the potential of the system as a drug-screening tool, the researchers exposed the differentiating cells to thalidomide, a drug known to cause severe birth defects. They found that at normal therapeutic doses, the drug led to abnormal development of microchambers, including decreased size, problems with muscle contraction and lower beat rates compared with heart tissue that had not been exposed to thalidomide.

This could replace the dissection of animals where organs were tested with different drugs to see where the organ development went wrong. This seems very inhuman to dissect animals and use their organs for testing purposes. These heart models would be used in place of the animal’s organs.

A group of scientists in Australia for the first time grew a minikidney out of stem cells. They caused these stem cells to differentiate and self-organize into the kidney cells. The model did develop like a normal kidney would develop and the three groups of “nephrons”–which are the three parts of the kidney– developed in the growth of the minikidney. The advantages of this minikidney were not discussed. Again, this model is in its incubation stage.

kidney out of stem cells

Now, scientists in Michigan say they have developed mini lungs that developed like fully developed lungs. The mini lungs in the image did look like the fully developed lungs in the other image. The mini lungs developed air sacs and they did last for 100 days in the lab. The hope is to see what drugs could damage the lungs if taken and they wanted to observe how the lungs developed naturally.

Previously scientists had derived lung tissue from flat cells or growing cells from donated organs on scaffolds. This team took basic stem cells and coaxed them to grow into actual mini lung organoid. The developed the lung from basic stem cells. They think this mini organoid will mimic the actual development of real lungs as we mentioned before. The scientists succeeded in growing structures resembling both the large airways known as bronchi and small lung sacs called alveoli.

The lung cells were developed in dishes so they lacked all the components of a real lung. They did not have blood vessels for instance. The lung structure was incomplete at best. If the research proves to be successful there is the reality that lung cancer patients may be able to receive new healthy lungs. Obviously, this would be a complex surgical procedure but this type of medical advance will not take place in the foreseeable future.

Another group of scientists attempted to grow a mini stomach. They did develop hollow oval shaped structures in a petri dish. It took one month to develop these rudimentary structures. They said the mini stomachs resembled one of the two sections of the stomach. So, the stomachs they developed may not be real stomach organs. They developed a model to study what types of bacteria would invade the stomach and cause gastric diseases.

The mini stomachs were grown from stem cells and by incorporating chemical switches to grow stomachs that were one millimeter in length. These are microscopic stomachs that probably would not be seen by the human eye.

The main researcher says there were hurdles to overcome in developing these small stomachs. They had no blueprint on how the stomach actually develops from the embryonic stage. The scientists had to depend on known research of how stomachs developed and trial and error was a big part of the process. Previously research teams had been able to develop gastric tissues but they never developed the structures into the 3-D models These structures developed into 3-D stages for the first time.

The mini stomachs are not organs per se but they are organoids because they are so elementary in structure and they do not contain the full characteristics of the full organ. “The experiment began with human pluripotent stem cells, which can become any cell in the human body if given the right chemical instructions. The researchers used two kinds of stem cells — one group was derived from a human embryo that was made about 15 years ago, and the other was derived from adult human skin cells, using a technique that won the Nobel Prize for medicine in 2012.”

The scientists did not reveal any data on the experiments conducted on the rabbits. The results are sketchy because the scientists gave no data to support that the transplants actually worked with the male rabbits. There could be a lot of moral and ethical issues involved in this controversial research.

This is a cruel example of research being conducted on rats. An international team of scientists developed a working esophagus in the lab. They used stem cells and prompted the cells to develop into this organ. The organ is a working organ because the scientists tested the durability of the organ by deflating and inflating it 10,000 times. Hopefully, this was done before the organs were surgically inserted in the rats.

The organs functioned successfully in the rats as 20% of their interior organs were removed. The esophagus organs were grown on scaffolds for 3 weeks. Again, just because they were functioning in rats does not mean they will function in humans. The organs must be grown on a much larger scale to be inserted in humans. The human body could reject these lab-grown organs. The scientists did not say if the rats lived out their full life cycles or if any died from having the organs inserted into their bodies. This is an inhuman experiment.

These organs were developed from stem cells as well. The esophagus brings food and water to the human body so it is an extremely important organ. This research if proven successful for humans could allow surgeons to surgically insert these new organs into human beings. Many people are diagnosed with esophageal cancer, and others suffer from congenital defects or are injured after medical procedures or swallowing caustic materials. So, these organs may help these types of patients.

Surprise they have developed an ear in the lab. Another cruel experiment conducted on rats. Scientists developed a human ear mold and injected it with ear tissue and out popped an ear they claim. The organs were surgically inserted into rats and left in their bodies for 1 to 3 months. The scientists observed how the organs changed and grew as the rats grew.

Note the ear is an artificial ear that developed from a plastic injection mold. The molds were squirted with ear cell tissues and the artificial ears developed. This seems like a stretch. The artificial ears function and look like real human ears. The image of the ear looked artificial it looked like a plastic model of a real ear.

The ears could be inserted into human beings who have lost their ear tissue from cancer or from some other form of damage. There is a long road to take before this will happen. Also, children with the deformity called microtia have hearing loss. The inner ear develops normally but the external ear does not. This organ could solve this problem.

The liver can be regenerated within the human body but it is a major challenge to grow liver tissue outside the bod. Scientists have tried to keep liver tissue alive outside the body without success. But a group of scientists in Israel and Germany has successfully developed and kept liver tissue alive outside the body. The tissue is called hepatocytes, which are liver cells.

Where this research will lead is unknown. Perhaps they will grow full-sized livers outside the body and transplant them into humans who have damaged livers. Or who suffer from life-threatening liver conditions.

Moral Issues with Humans Reproducing Human Parts

Moral Issues with Humans Reproducing Human Parts

Along with the discussion on human parts being fabricated or grown from the basic stem cell. The moral implications must be reviewed as well. Do human beings play God when they begin to refabricate the very structure of the human body? Another consideration is will bodies that have outer organs transplanted into them accept or reject the alien organs?

When does genetic manipulation cross the line? Is it right for humans to engineer body parts in the lab and what if the human race begins to create whole human beings in the lab? Another perspective to consider is that animals are the guinea pigs for these new organ transplants before they are transplanted into human beings. This involves altering the animal’s internal structures. It is right for us to cut open a rat or a rabbit and change its natural structure?

The organs grown in the labs are all being done for good reasons to help people who may suffer from deadly defects or diseases in those particular organs. But the research is in the very primitive stages and the research has a long way to go before the transplants can actually be transplanted into humans. It is never a guarantee that the newly fabricated parts will grow naturally and function naturally in the human bodies that are surgically implanted into.

This would be a good time to learn more about synthetic urine and its uses because it actually has several, but its main use is to pass a drug screening test. The idea of synthetic urine might be new to you. Basically, it’s a liquid that has been scientifically mixed to form a urine-like sample. Testing for drugs is the system used during the hiring process, or for any other circumstances that need a person’s urine to be tested. The artificial urine is manufactured to resemble human urine and has no trace of drugs or other substances such as opiates, marijuana, cocaine, or other illegal drugs, all of which could make a person fail a drug test.

Synthetic urine is manufactured to contain the acceptable levels of creatine, uric acid, urea, nitrates, as well as being at the optimal pH level, which is what human urine consists of. If you’ve ever used it, you’ll notice a real urine smell with the correct balance of minerals and water to look like real urine.

Synthetic urine is usually purchased with kits that have heating pads to test the temperature. With the kit, there might be also a belt for easy hiding around the waist.

Conclusion:

We have discussed some of the most fabricated body parts by scientists on the planet today. We have also discussed how organs can be fabricated and surgically inserted into human bodies to take the place of damaged human parts. We have discussed those human parts that seem to be fabricated or grown in the lab the most.

A Lot of the parts grown in the labs are in the very early stages of development and a couple of them have been inserted into rats, not humans. The organs may not even function in humans properly only time will tell.

Written by Irina Radosevic MD
Irina graduated from the University of Belgrade, School of Medicine as a Doctor of Medicine (MD) and spent over 3 years working in the Clinical Hospital Center Zvezdara, in the Department of Emergency Medicine. She also undertook a postgraduate in Cardiology from the same University and had previously worked for over a year as a Physician and Nutritionist Dietitian for the Fitness club Green Zone. She eventually left her chaotic but fulfilling job in the ER to pursue her passion of writing, travelling and mountain climbing which has included writing a first aid course for the alpine club of Belgrade. Irina currently works as a VA for PintMedia focusing on medical and travel writing. Feel free to connect with Irina on LinkedIn and FaceBook. Her CV can be seen here.